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  1. Arthur Whitham (1893-1942) was born to a weaver called James William Whitham and his wife Margaret of 106 Hurtley Street, Burnley. He went on to become a socialist and an activist for the Independent Labour Party and a speaker of Esperanto, and travelled widely using the language. The planned international language Esperanto, which meant so much to him, arrived in Burnley well before the First World War. Two local people appeared in the Adresaro (Directory of Esperanto speakers) for 1906. They were Pastro (i.e. Rev.) J. Morgan Whiteman of 312 Padiham Road, and J. Simpson of 28 Keith Street. In April 1906 a Burley Esperanto Society was formed, with J.W. Hartley of 24 Lubbock Street as its secretary. That Society continued to meet through the two world wars until about 1975. In 1913 there were two separate Esperanto societies in the town, both meeting every day. The secretary of one was Miss Judson, while the other, calling itself ‘Antaǔen’ (Forwards) had T. Fernley as secretary. We must presume that Arthur Whitham learned the new language through one of the Burmley Esperanto societies. He was certainly familiar with Esperanto in 1913, because he appears as the local representative for Burnley in the Jarlibro (Year Book) of Universala Esperanto-Asocio for that year. His address then was given as 20 Hornley Street. His deputy was Herbert Hardaker of 27 St Mathews Street. It is possible to piece together some of his story, although there are gaps to be filled. It is possible that he served as a soldier in the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, but there are so many men with the same name that it is difficult to be sure. He married fellow cotton weaver Annie Leeming in 1920. His international travels using Esperanto began the following year. In the summer of 1921 he visited Prague, then in Czechoslovakia, after taking part in the German Congress held in Dresden. Arthur Whitham gave several talks on his travels, not only in Burnley, but also in neighbouring Nelson. I can find no trace of his writing an account of his experiences, although he clearly spoke well. Local newspapers reported extensively on his travels, partly because he was a local ‘character’ and partly because it was so unusual at that time for a working class person to travel widely and independently. AN ESPERANTIST’S VISIT TO PRAGUE. —On Thursday the Nelson Esperanto Society were favoured with a lecture from Mr. Arthur Whitham, Burnley, on his recent visit to the 13th Universal Congress of Esperantists at Prague. Leaving Burnley in good time Mr. Whitham found it possible to visit also the National Congress of German Esperantists at Dresden, which took place several days prior to that at Prague. After the latter congress some time was spent in the northern part of Chechoslovakia (sic). In Dresden the people are still rationed for bread, coupons having to he used. Owing to the tremendous fall in the value of the mark, the lecturer and a friend were able to dine at the best hotel for 4s. (including waiter’s gratuities and all charges for the two persons)! Travelling about in the company of people of almost every nationality he found, as he experienced on previous occasions, that Esperanto quite vindicated its claim to be presentday practical medium both for pleasure and business. One cannot see 2,500 people of over 40 different tongues meeting together in unity and understanding and remain a sceptic as to the language which enables them to do it. Returning alone through Germany, Mr. Whitham said he experienced nothing but kindness everywhere. Glowing tribute was paid to the services rendered by the delegates of the Universal Esperanto Association who met the visitors and conducted them from the station to the hotel, acting as interpreters where Esperanto was not understood, and in many ways removing difficulties usually encountered. Seeing a card in shop window "English spoken here,” Mr. Whitham essayed a joke. Entering the shop he addressed the attendant in broad Lancashire dialect. "Wheer is that mon as can talk English” (or some such phrase). ”He is here," replied the man, ”and I perceive that you are from Lancashire.” The joke having rnlssed fire, the visitor learned that the attendant formerly lived in Blackpool. The lecture was delivered entirely in Esperanto, and was thoroughly enjoyed the members of the local society. (Nelson Leader - Friday 14 October 1921) We know that Arthur Whitham stayed with a couple Mr and Mrs Willi Weisskopf of Saaz, a small village now in Austria. A little over a year later, Arthur Whitham gave a similar talk in Nelson, which also diligently reported. THE CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE. • LECTURE AT NELSON On Tuesday evening Mr. Arthur Whitham, of Burnley, gave a very interesting lecture, in Esperanto, to the members of the Nelson Esperanto Society, in the Co-operative Room, Chapel House Road. Mr. Whitham gave a varied picture, of the condition of the people in Central Europe, as seen by him last summer, during his tour of three months duration. In Vienna, where he spent six weeks, the lecturer found beggars in every street, the condition the people being most pitiable. Notwithstanding their extreme poverty, the mass of the people by virtue of extreme care with their attire contrive to keep up appearance of respectability. Many Austrians, of whose good nature and fine qualities Mr. Whitham spoke with deep appreciation, told him that had it not been for the generous help of English and American relief societies, they must inevitably have died in thousands. The country is poor indeed, but its people are rich in the qualities which go to make up a fine manhood. Regarding Esperanto and its utility for travellers, Mr. Whitham was more enthusiastic than ever, if that is possible. It is often said that English is known everywhere, but this is not true. However serviceable English may be on the beaten track, it is not compared with Esperanto in the small countries of Central Europe, in Northern Bohemia, for instance. Esperanto is much more serviceable than English. In Czechoslovakia the three or four races which make up the population are quite hostile to the use each other's language, and Esperanto is making great headway. Anyone with a good knowledge of Esperanto who will take the trouble to write to the delegate of the Universal Esperanto Association in the various places he intends to visit will be assured of adequate help and a multitude of kindnesses irrespective of the nationality of the persons concerned. Mr. Whitham intends to visit the Esperanto Congress at Nuremburg next August. (Nelson Leader - Friday 22 December 1922) After some years active in the neutral Esperanto organisation, Arthur Whitham joined Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (World Non-national Association). SAT was founded in 1921 by Eugène Lanti (pseudonym of Eugène Adam) and others as an organisation of the workers' Esperanto movement. In view of his political views, it is clear that Whitham saw his home as a member of SAT. The Esperanto press also reported on his visit to Pilzeň (Pilsen) Kara gasto de L.L.E. (=Laborista Ligo Esperantista en Pilzeň estis dum kelkaj tagoj S-o Arthur Whitham el Burnley (Anglujo), kiu per siaj rakontoj entuziasmigis la membrojn al la nova laboro. (La Progreso, 1. July 1922) In English : A dear guest of the WorkersEsperanto League in Pilzeň for a few days was Mr Arthur Whitham from Burnley (England), who, by his stories enthused the members to new work. In 1923 Whitham joined the 3rd SAT Congress in Germany, but I can find no evidence that he was present there. I cannot find any evidence of Arthur Whitham travelling abroad in 1923 and 1924, but we do know that in 1925 he travelled alone overland to the Soviet Union. One cannot exaggerate the interest in and suspicion about the Soviet Union in the United Kingdom at that time. UNDER SOVIET RULE. Burnley Man's Experiences in Russia. BOROUGH MEMBER'S HELP. Mr. Arthur Whitham, of 20, Hornby-street, Burnley, who is well known in Burnley Trade Union and Socialist circles, has this week returned from an adventurous and extremely interesting visit he has paid to Russia. Mr. Whitham, vho was in Russia from the first week in August, went entirely "on his own for the purpose of studying conditions at first hand, and he has come back able to give remarkable accounts of political, industrial and social conditions under the Soviet system. Many of the difficulties attending any attempt to enter Russia - unless one goes as a "privileged person" were smoothed away by Mr. Whitham being able to refer the representatives of the Soviet in London to Mr. Arthur Henderson, the Borough Member. One of the difficulties is that three months' notice is required for any "unprivileged" person wishing to visit Russia; but Mr. Whitham, with the assistance of Mr. Henderson, was able to persuade the Russian Consul-General in London that this was unnecessary in his case. Mr. Whitham states that after the frontier difficulties were over he had nothing but kindness from the representatives of the Communist Party. "Wherever I went," Mr. Whitham told a "Burnley News” representative last night, "they did their best to help me, whether I was visiting the villages, or the prisons, or the factories and workshops. It was always the same. Doors were thrown wide open, and always the greeting was, 'What can we do for you, comrade?' They did not know I was coming, and therefore it couldn't be a case of things being prepared for one." Mr.Whitham addressed meetings in various places, and found the Russian workers everywhere eager to learn about political conditions in England and especially about the prospects of Communist revolution in this country. Mr. Whitham says he had to tell them plainly that their eager expectations in this direction were not warranted in any sense by the facts, and described vividly the surprise of the Russian workers at the apparent lethargy the "proletariat" of this country on the question of getting rid of their "chains". Mr. Whitham has brought back examples of Soviet posters (advertising the advantages of dealing with the Co-operative shops in Russia), and some interesting photographs. But much of the literature he had collected was confiscated when he entered Poland on his return journey. Mr. Whitham has, as stated, a great deal that is interesting to say about various aspects of the Soviet regime in Russia, and in next Wednesday's, issue of the "Burnley News" a full account of his observations and comments will be given. (Burnley News, Saturday 12 September 1925) The Burnley News even printed a short text in the planned language, with a few errors. LA OFICIALA LINGVO D£ LABORO. La Sinkikata Kongreso en Scarborough akceptiis rezolucion de la Amalgamated Engineering Union, kiu instruis la Generalan Konsilantaron adopti Esperauton kiel la oficialan. internacian lingvon. Oni bonvenigis delegitojn el Kanado, Usono, Rusujo kaj La Sindikata Kongreso en Scarborough Meksikio. Translation -The Trades Union Congress at Scarborough accepted. a resolution from the Amalgamated Engineering Union, instructing the General Council to adopt Esperanto as the official international language. Delegates from Canada, the United States, Russia and Mexico were enthusiastically welcomed. ln view of the above resolution it is interesting to note that Mr. Arthur Whitham in his interview with the "Burnley News" on Wednesday makes mention that Esperanto enabled him to converse freely with people on the Continent during his three months tour, from which he has just returned. One wonders why children at school and at college are allowed to rack their brains learning several languages, when it would be much easier to teach .them a common language. In the new movements that are taking place industrially and politically all over the world, it is interesting to note that the workers' organisations are realising "the handicap of language and are endeavouring to overcome it. (Burnley News, Saturday 19 September 1925) "RUSSIA - MY IMPRESSIONS" No one should miss the opportunity of hearing a lecture on Russia first hand. On Thursday, October 1st, at 7-30. p.m., Mr. Arthur Whitham will speak on Russia in a lecture entitled. "Russia: My Impressions." Mr. Whitham's many friends need no reminding that his "lectures" are always entertaining and interesting. More than one quarterly meeting of members of the Burnley Weavers' Association has been given an added interest when Mr. Whitham has risen to lead the debate. l am looking forward to the lecture myself very much. Lectures on Russia have been given in Burnley before many times—but usually the lecturer's interpreter has taken the "life" out of the subject. Mr. Whitham will give us Russia in plain, homely, Lancashire phraseology. (Burnley News - 19 September 1925) Sennaciulo, the periodical of the lefty-wing movement SAT published an article on 24 September 1925, entitled ”Kelkaj rezultoj de laboristaj ekskursoj en Sovet-Unio” (Some results of workers’ trips to the Soviet Union) mentioning Whitham, but mis-spelled his name as Witham. In 1926 Arthur Whitham joined the SAT Congress in Leningrad as participant number 198. Again he extended his visit in order to experience more of life in the Soviet Union. Again the Burnley News saw his experiences as newsworthy, dedicating almost a whole page to his travels, and printing a photo of a group of men and women cotton workers in Ivanovo, Mr. Whitham himself being seated among the group. This visit took place just after the General Strike of May 1926. MORE LIGHT ON RUSSIA, MR ARTHUR WHITHAM'S SECOND VISIT A Burnley man, Mr Arthur Whitham, of Reed Street, Burnley Wood, well known in connection with the local Socialist movement, and also a stalwart of Esperanto has recently paid a second visit to Soviet Russia, and has brought back with him interesting news of the present situation there, along with some souvenirs and curiosities which help to throw light on the trend of affairs under the successors of Lenin. It may be remembered that Mr. Whitham, alone and unaided, so to speak, by any high official recommendation was able to reach the interior of Russia last year, and, once inside, succeeded in striking up acquaintance with many influential representatives of the Soviet regime, and brought home much interesting news of the institutions and practices set up under the Communist control. We published at the time a full account of his impressions. .. An Approved Visitor, Mr Whitham left Burnley on another visit to Russia late in July this year, and returned towards the end of October. He has already given some account of his new experiences and observations in the Soviet Republic to Burnley Esperantists, and also this week to members of the Harle Syke Branch of the I.L.P. He has much to tell which is of considerable interest in present circumstances, and to "Burnley News" representative on Thursday he gave details of his journey and of his impressions ... Mr Whitham's primary object was to attend an International Socialist Congress, which was held at Leningrad (the former St. Petersburg). This was attended by representatives of about a score of nations, including most of the European peoples, Chinese, Japanese, and other Asiatic races were also represented. There were 35 delegates in all from England. Mr. Whitham's visit last year gave him a special status at the Congress. He was elected one of the vice-presidents, and in that capacity sat with other officers on the "praesidium" of the hall where the Congress met (this was in the former Russian "House of Commons" — the Duma building of the old regime. The sessions of the Congress occupied a week, and then Mr. Whitham spent nearly two months looking at things Russian in the big towns and the little villages. Mr. Whitham mentions that textile wages, which, as mentioned in the accounts of his last year's vsiit, are on a much lower level than in England, have been going up. A rise in the cost of living accompanies the wages increase, nevertheless, and Mr. Whitham repeats what he ponted out last year - that the work done for the wages is much less than in this country, the Russian operatives seldom having more than two looms He speaks again also, with some admiration, of the system of providing cheap meals for the mill workers in kitchens at the mills. "I had a good three-course dinner at one of them for ninepence!" Mr. Whitham said. Nevertheless, the higher quality of British goods appears to be one of the vivid impressions Mr. Whitham brings back with him. What he saw of the textile products, not merely of the Russian worker, but of the continental operative generally, led him to this somewhat emphatic conclusion. BURNLEY MACHINERY. "There is still a big housing problem," Mr. Whitham went on, “and the population is growing at a great rate, especially in the big towns. There is an unemployed problem. But it isn't a big one; the officials of the textile unions told me their unemployed would all be working within a month." Mr. Whitham mentions that in one factory he noticed an old tape machine bearing the name of a Burnley firm—Messrs. Butterworth and Dickinson. In other places he saw machinery which had come from Lancashire frms, such Messrs. Tweedale and Smalley. as the result of the placing of Soviet orders in this country a year or more ago. Mr. Whitham spent an interesting time at Ivanovo, a town known among the Russians as "Red Manchester."... Mr. Whitham brings back a very positive conviction that there is no directly political motive behind the big drafts of Russian money which have come to this country in aid of British miners during the coal trouble. He gave public addresses – one of them in a town hall – on the British miners’ situation in the coal struggle, and on working-class conditions generally in the country. ... He speaks again also, with some admiration, of the system of providing cheap meals for the mill workers in kitchens at the mills. "I had a good three-course dinner at one of them for ninepence!" Mr. Whitham said. Nevertheless, the higher quality of British goods appears to be one of the vivid impressions Mr. Whitham brings back with him. What he saw of the textile products, not merely of the Russian worker, but of the continental operative generally led him to this somewhat emphatic conclusion. ... And I have no doubt whatever,” Mr. Whitham stated, "from what I saw of the propaganda on the matter, that the millions of money sent to the miners of the country has come from the Russian workers themselves. After one of my addresses, they decided each to give fourth of a day's pay, and they gave their money there and elsewhere undoubtedly because the British miners are workers like themselves, and because they believed they were in a bad way. There is genuine sympathy for the workers of every country. It is probably true that the money has been given, also, in the idea that it would help the prolongation of the strike; but when I asked if they were hoping for a revolution in this country, they asked if I imagined they were foolish to think a revolution could be produced with the money they were giving. There was enthusiasm everywhere for the cause of the British miners." Mr. Whitham gives the impression that he saw and heard little to justify the suggestion that recent differences among the leaders of the Communist party constitute a menace to the security of the present Soviet regime. There are troubles in the party, he says, but he thinks the responsible leaders are strong enough to ward off any danger to the Soviet political order as it stands. He does not think there is any special sympathy, politically speaking, between the Soviet and the republican regime in Germany. ... Among his interesting personal experiences Mr. Whitham mentions a visit to a barracks at Smolensk. He was introduced to the Commandant by a soldier-Esperantist with whom he had become friendly at the Congress. There was special parade of the troops, and Mr. Whitham addressed them. He was made honorary Officer of a Cavalry regiment, and presented with the regimental shoulder badge. The Burnley man also paid visits to schools and prisons. He spoke to children at the schools, and found them well up in geography. The teachers are capable but ill-paid. At the prisons he found an undue tendency to leniency of treatment, resulting in some offenders appearing again and again as prisoners without detriment to their cheerfulness. (Burnley News - Saturday 20 November 1926) Arthur Whitham was not alone in Burnley in having left-wing and Esperanto leanings. Listed in the 1927 Jarlibro (Yearbook) of Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (Worldwide Non-Nationalist Association) alongside him is K-do (Comrade) Herbert Ward, also a weaver, of 8 Brockenhust Street. In the 1928 Yearbook they are joined by A.C. Bland of 61 Williams Street. Esperanto was relatively strong in the town. In 1928 no less than thirteen people from Burnley attended the Universala Kongreso held in Belgium. They were: F-ino (=Miss) Annie Lancaster, oficistino (=office worker), F-ino (=Miss) Annie Hurley, F-ino (=Miss) Ada Greenwood, F-ino (=Miss) Emile Poppleton, F-ino (=Miss) Elizabeth Shackleton, oficistino (=office worker), S-ro (=Mr) William Foulds, oficisto, (=office worker), S-ino Elizabeth Foulds, S-ro (=Mr) Mason Stuttard, teksisto, S-ino Mason Stuttard, F-ino (=Miss) Dora Bowker, teksistino, S-ro (=Mr) Thomas Bond, teksisto, S-ro (=Mr) Jack Shuttleworth, teksisto, F-ino (=Miss) Susan Alice Hartley, teksistino. The last four names, as well as Mason Stuttard, all declared themselves to be weavers. Mason Stuttard (1903-1983) wrote a popular Esperanto textbook which had five separate editions, and he wrote stories and poetry in the language. A talented speaker of several languages, he did not return home to UK after the Second World War, but remained in Yugoslavia for many years as Tito's personal English interpreter.
  2. la Nacia Eisteddfod (Ejstedvodo*) kiu okazas dum la unua semajno de aŭgusto ĉiun jaron estas festo de la kulturo kaj lingvo en Kimrio. La festivalo vojaĝas de loko al loko, alternante inter norda kaj suda Kimrio, allogante ĉirkaŭ 150.000 vizitantojn kaj pli ol 250 vendejojn kaj budojn. Inter ili estas librovendejoj kaj eldonistoj. La festivalo de 2019 okazissur kampoj apud urbeto Llanrwst, nelonge for de mia hejmo. Mi mem provas ĉeesti ĉiun festivalon en la nordo. Ekzistas miloj kiuj partoprenas ĉiujare, tendumante apude. Oni povas trovi spurojn de la festivalo jam en 1176, sed la moderna historio de la evento vere datumas de 1861. La festivalo okazis ĉiujare, krom 1914, kiam la eksplodo de la unua mondmilito devigis organizantojn prokrasti dum unu jaro. Tradicie konkurso-bazita festivalo, altirante pli ol 6.000 konkurantojn ĉiun jaron, la festivalo disvolviĝis kaj evoluis dum la lastaj jaroj, kaj dum la konkursoj estas la centra fokuso de la semajno, la Maes (kampo) mem kreskis kaj disvolviĝis en viglan festivalon, kun centoj da eventoj kaj agadoj por la tuta familio. Ekzemple estas granda tendo pri scienco kun aktivecoj kimralingvaj. La plej multaj ĉefaj verkistoj, muzikistoj, kantistoj kaj poetoj de Kimrio konkuris iam ĉe la Eisteddfod, kaj multaj prezentistoj aperis sur nacia scenejo la unuan fojon dum la festivalo. La Eisteddfod estas la natura montrofenestro en Kimrio por muziko, danco, vidaj artoj, literaturo, kaj multo pli. Ĝi celas esti inkluziva kaj bonveniga festivalo, kiu allogas milojn da gelernantoj de la kimra lingvo kaj tiujn, kiuj ne parolas la lingvon ĉiujare. Portebla tradukaj servo (al la angla) estas havebla kaj skribaj dulingvaj informoj haveblas en kelkaj lokoj. Kvankam la kimra restas la ĉefa uzata lingvo. La semajno de la Eisteddfod estas la kulmino de dujara komunuma projekto, kunigante homojn de ĉiuj aĝoj kaj fonoj el malsama parto de Kimrio ĉiujare. Mi mem havis la honoron prezidi lokan komitaton kiu kolektis monon por la festivalo ek de januaro 2018 pere de koncertoj, kafo-matenoj, ekskursoj k.t.p. Tiuj aranĝoj mem riĉigis la socian kaj kulturan vivon de nia komunumo. Nu, en 2019, ni eble ne havis la veteron, kiun ni esperis, ĉar pluvis foje, kaj estis koto sur la festivalaj kampoj fine de la semajno, sed io tute magia okazis denove. *Jen termino kreita de Reto Rossetti antaǔ pli ol 70 jaroj. Vidu : La Kimraj Artofestoj en Somera Universitato: Malmo 1948. PIV ne enhavas la vorton « ejstedvodo », sed mi ja aǔdis ĝin, interalie de bretonaj esperantistoj. La fotojn faris mia filino Elinor Chapman. 1. Malgraŭ pluvo, solkantistino prezentas programon al malgranda spektantaro meze de kampo. 2. Virvoĉa koruso Cor Meibion Maelgwn konkursas en la centra pavilono.
  3. Occasionally one comes across critics of Esperanto who suggest that the language can only be used in conferences arranged for that purpose. In fact most of my use of Esperanto on my travels over the years has been in private settings away from conference centres and the like. I am not against structured meetings, but I have a lot of experience of, for example, sleeping on the floor of a farmhouse in Croatia or having coffee and cakes in the garden of a German family. During 2019, I was lucky enough to visit Japan twice. In January, I went alone to discuss with the city council in Himeji practical aspects of the twinning of "our" castle in Conwy with their castle. In October I travelled there again, this time with my wife Pat and four colleagues to sign an agreement between these two noble castles, both recognized by UNESCO as being important to World Heritage. During my first visit I used English for two days, with the help of an interpreter, and subsequently only Esperanto for five days. I had the pleasure of meeting friendly Esperantists. I was invited to lecture about Wales twice - first in Himeji, then in Kobe. These good-natured people spent a lot of time with me, explaining a lot to me, especially about Japanese food and religious practices. Local Esperantists guided me on an excursion to Nara, the former capital of Japan. I also visited Kobe where I was present at the start of a murder trial. I understood what was happening, thanks to Nakamiti Tamihiro who was sitting next to me, whispering translations. Then he sent me the verdict of the judge in that case. Mrs Yosida Nobuko taught me the Japanese tea ceremony with patience. It's dangerous to mention names, because people can easily be left out, but I am happy to thank Tada Ryuji and Tukamoto Takesi who did so much for me in Himeji and Isogai Naotake in Kobe. Takatoshi Somekawa was kind enough to accompany me to the airport on my last day. Before the tea ceremony. A few months after my return home I went to see a doctor about an unusual back pain. Finally, a serious illness was diagnosed. Due to the uncertainty, I contacted my Japanese friends to explain that my planned return in October 2019 had become really uncertain. A little later I received a package from Japan with greetings from members of the Harima Esperanto Society, based in Himeji. Knowing that I was not in good health, they sent me an unusual and touching gift. Senbazuru is a group of thousand origami paper cranes joined together by string. An ancient Japanese legend promises that whoever folds a thousand origami cranes will receive a gift from the gods (if I understand correctly). In Japan, the crane was considered a mystical animal believed to live for a thousand years. Because of this, it has become a symbol of good luck and long life. The Esperantists in Himeji worked together in making this multi-coloured symbol of their good wishes. Finally, with the permission of my oncologist (needed, so that I could get insurance), I decided that I would be able to visit Japan again in October 2019 to attend the formal signing of the agreement for the twinning of the castles. My wife and I made the trip to Japan, and again local Esperantists welcomed us and made every effort to make us feel at home. Ritual cleaning of hands. We had a green tea with local Esperanto speakers during a visit to an azuki bean museum in Himeji. Yes, there is an azuki bean museum in Himeji dedicated to a type of bean! We also ate cakes made from adzuki beans, also called azuki or aduki. There is only one Esperanto word: azukio. Probably the most striking part of our stay in Japan was a visit to the Oomoto Centre. By bus 23 Esperantists from the area around Himeji travelled to Kameoka together. On the way, we visited the most sumptuous, most luxurious toilets I have ever seen. I have never previously seen chandeliers in public toilets near a motorway! The Oomoto bus. Arriving at the Oomoto building, we met a young woman called Unika, a board member of the youth organisation TEJO from Korea, and a young Spanish man called Alejandro. There we were able to attend a ceremony of a religion or sect that originates from Shinto, but emphasizes that there is only one God. I thank Toshiomi Okuwaki for responding to my questions. We also watched a Noh drama. This is the oldest Japanese form of theatre combining music, dance, and acting. Little "happens" in Noh drama, and the overall effect is of a metaphor. Informed and educated Japanese spectators know the story's plot very well, so what they appreciate are the symbols and subtle allusions to Japanese cultural history contained in the words and movements. Well, Pat and I certainly couldn't understand the whole thing, but I could appreciate the unusual music and the graceful dancing. With friends, outside some luxurious toilets! Esperanto has definitely helped me get to know a country with culture and traditions that were completely new to me.
  4. Nedankinde. Mi esperas eldonigi post du monatoj tutan libron pri la frua historio de Esperanto en Britio.
  5. Pioneers of Esperanto in Dover Esperanto is a planned international language first published in 1887. Its first adepts lived in the then Russian Empire, but it began to gain adherents in Great Britain from about 1900 onwards. The names (not always complete) and addresses of early speakers of Esperanto in Dover, with their registration numbers are as follows in the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) of January 1904 to January 1905 (Series XXV, and subsequent series). All of the following are listed in Dover, Anglujo, i.e. England. The number given is a unique one for each individual. Indeed, early users of the language frequently signed articles with that number alone, knowing that anyone wanting to contact them could find their address in the Adresaro. 10709 A.F. Wealmisley (sic), “Atherstone, Castle Avenue 10710 H.R. Geddes, Northumberland House 10711 Fino (=Miss) Ewell, 10712 Fino (=Miss) Gibbs, 9 De Vere Gardens 10713 Fino (=Miss) Mc Neille, 1 Norman Terrace 10714 C. E. Beaufoy, High Street 10715 S.I. Hornby, H.M. Customs, 7 Esplanada (sic) 10716 E.E. Chitty, Castle Street 10717 Fino (=Miss) Geddes, Northumberland House 10718 Sino (=Mrs) Green, 1 Grabble Villas 10719 Sino (=Mrs) Hall, 8 De Vere Gardens 10720 Sino (=Mrs) L.V. Young, 188 Swargate Street 10721 Sino (=Mrs) Lawrence, International Dining Rooms, Swargate Street 10722 Sino (=Mrs) Reichman, 30 Biggin Street 10723 Sir William H. Crundall, “Woddside” (sic), Kearnsey 10724 W.H. East, “East Lea” Maison Dieu Road 10725 W.E. Wolsey, H.M. Customs 10726 Captain Dixon, 4 Waterloo Crescent 10728 Captain Iron, 3 Maison Dieu Road 10729 B. Foster, Casa Roumania, Kearnsey 10730 A. Van Hercke, 145 Buckland Avenue 10731 G.W.L. Ostermoor, Littlecott Peachery 10732 Fino (=Miss) Roberts, 2 Park Street 10733 Fino (=Miss) Marsh, 23 Cherry Tree Avenue 10734 Fino (=Miss) Chidwick, 96 Maison Dieu Road 10735 Fino (=Miss) Fry, 6 Burlington Villas, Townwall 10736 Fino (=Miss) Smith, 46 London Road 10737 Fino (=Miss) Welch, “Sonnenberg”, Castle Avenue 10738 Fino (=Miss) Thompson, 230 London Road 10739 Fino (=Miss) K. McNeille, 1 Norman Terrace 10740 Fino (=Miss) Underdown, 12 King Street 10741 P.W. Mackenzie, 25 Marine Parade 10742 F.H. Driscoll, 3 Esplanade 10743 Miller Junr, Esplanade Hotel 10744 A. Schulthers, 12 Millais Road 10745 R.G. Clifton, Custom House 10746 Woodhams, C/o stations sup.: Harbour Station 10747 W.E. Osborn, 4 Longfield Terrace 10748 Gardner, Swan Hotel, Stroud Street 10749 Musson, 23 East Cliff 10750 O’Connor, 2 Avenue Road, Frith Road 10751 H. Masters, Biggin Street 10752 Mangilli, café-restaurant, Bench Street 10753 Hawkins, 27 Pencester Road 10755 Law, 30 Biggin Street 12539 Noel Vaslet, c/o Mdlle A.J. Vaslet Some of these individuals can be tracked through census records. Edward A. Walmisley (born in 1878) was a solicitor. Herbert Richard Geddes (1874-1952) was a Custom House Agent in 1901. Ten years later he was a manager at Friend & Co., Continental Carriers. Charles Edwin Beaufoy (1869-1955) worked all his life as a builder and undertaker. Ernest Edward Chitty (1882-1965) was a solicitor. William Henry Crundall (1847-1934) was a timber merchant and employer. He served as Mayor of Dover on many occasions between 1886 and 1910. Gerard William Ostermoor (1857-1911) was the son of a man born in Germany. Sadly, young Ostermoor ended his days in Chatham Lunatic Asylum. Noel Vaslet was the son of a Belgian-born professor of languages. In 1901 he was working as an engraver. Later in life he worked as a scientific researcher, and he also served as a Special Constable. According to the inside cover (p.ii) of The British Esperantist magazine for January 1905, an Esperanto Society in Dover had been founded in June 1904. Its Secretary is given as Mr Geddes, Northumberland House, and the President is listed as T. Walmisley, Esq. The British Esperantist for February 1905 reported bilingually that “The devoted secretary of the Dover Club (Mr H.R. Gesddes) gave an address on Esperanto at the monthly meeting of the Folkestone Chamber of Commerce on the 29th of November last (1904). The speech was a complete success, and in all probability the scheme will receive the official sanction and support of the Folkestone Chamber of Commerce”. The British Esperantist reported in January 1906 that “During December (1905) the number of active members has shown satisfactory increase, forty of these being now entered on the books. Specially noteworthy has been the progress of the new ladies’ group from which several were able to assist at a meeting held in Deal.” In the list of affiliated groups in 1907 (see The British Esperantist, vol. III, title page) the secretary was Mr W. Chitty, Mildura, Park Avenue, and the President is listed as Sir Wm. H. Crundall. The number of Esperanto speakers registered in Dover is disproportionately large, compared with other British towns at this time. Can anyone account for this sudden outbreak of idealism and internationalism in the town in the years before the First World War? Press reports and letters in the press give a flavour of Esperanto in Dover in 1904 and 1905. ESPERANTISTS AT DOVER INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS. On Monday Dover was the scene of a Congress of students of the new International language, Esperanto, which was attended by Esperantists from London, Calais, Boulogne, Nancy, Belgium, Valenciennes, Prague, and other parts of the Continent, from whence altogether there were nearly 120 present. The previous day nine delegates from the London and Dover Esperanto Clubs proceeded to Calais to take part in the Congress organsed by the Calais Groupe, They were received at the Gare Maritime a large number of Continental Esperantists and a most agreeable day was spent. The Dover delegates included Messrs. Wolsey, Hornby, Cowper, Finez, Geddes, etc., and from London, Messrs. H. Bolingbroke Mudie, Reeves, and Blot. The voyage to Dover on Monday was made in the Nord, and at Dover the foreign visitors were received by the Dover Esperanto Group, of which Mr. A. T. Walmisley, M.lnst.C.E., and Engineer to the Dover Harbour Board, is the President. The Hon. Secretary of the London Esperanto Group, Mr. H. Bolingbroke Mudie, was also present, together with members of the Dover Esperanto Group, including Mr. H. H. Geddes, Hon. Secretary, and M. Finez, vice- Consul for France at Dover, all of whom united in extending a cordial reception to the visiting Esperantists, who together sang " God save the King," " Dio Savu Regon," followed by the Marseillaise, both in Esperanto, whilst they formed up front of the Lord Warden Hotel. The towns represented by the visitors were: Boulogne (President, M. Michaŭ), Calais (Presi- dent, M. le Dr. Guyot; Secretary, M. Carpente), Lyons (M. Offret), CIermont-Ferrand (Commandant Matton), Valenciennes (M. Bastien), Iloubaix (M. Wicart), Paris (M. de Menil), Nancy (M. Pourcinnes), Algeria (Captain Cape), Courtrai (Dr. Seynaove, editor of the Belga Sonorilo), Prague (M. Kunhl), Lille, St. Omer, Bruges, and other French, German, and Belgian centres. English representatives came from London (Messrs H. Bolingbroke Mudie, Reeves, and Blott, Miss Lawrence, Miss Schafer, etc.), Wandsworth (Mr. Hayes), Deal (Mr. Cowper), Folkestone (Dr. Martyn Westcott), Hastings, Ashford, etc. The green star was much evidence. At the present time the Dover Esperanto Group is of only eight or nine weeks age, and though the progress of the members in the study of the language is great, it was too early to give evidence of it during the visit of the Esperantists on Monday. Mr. Mudie and M. Finez, whose acquaintance with the language is older, however proved themselves expert linguists in Esperanto. After the welcome on the Pier, it was arranged that the lady foreign members should be entertained by the Dover lady Esperantists during the afternoon, and they were taken charge of by Mrs. Geddes, the Misses McNeille, Ewell, Smith, Marsh, Chidwick, etc., whilst the gentlemen were shown over the Harbour Works. The Harbour tug was to have been requisitioned to carry the party to the Eastern Arm, but this proved to be impossible owing to the tug being required down Channel. Instead of this, Mr. Mudie gave the party a description of the Harbour in Esperanto from the promptings of his fellow local Esperantists, and then a move was made the Sea Front, and up to the Castle, where, however, an interfering soldier who lacked both authority and manners, rather upset the party by informing them that "No foreigners could enter Dover Castle." He probably intended this as a practical joke, for the sentry, on being appealed to by the English Esperantists, said he had no such orders, and the party promptly entered after giving up the cameras which many of the visitors were loaded with. The round of the Castle occupied some time, though most of the interesting parts, such as the top of the Keep and the Keep itself were closed. Afterwards the party went through Connaught Park, thence by the Town Hall and down Biggin Street to Mangilli's Restaurant, where dinner was served. A Re-Union of Esperantists subsequently took place in the Council Chamber at the Town Hall, the entrance of which was decorated with the emblem " Esperantistoj Bonvenon," the equivalent for "Welcome Esperantists." The Council Chamber was made gay with English and French flags, together with the green of Esperanto. There was a very crowded gathering of both ladies and gentlemen. The President (Mr. A. T. Walmisley) having expressed a welcome to the delegates in Esperanto, dropped into English, which was subsequently translated into Esperanto by Mr. Mudie. He said that he was very pleased to be able to welcome them to Dover. Their object, that of enabling people of different nationalities to express themselves in an intelligible way by one common language, was a very noble aim. Sir William Crundall, to whom as Mayor of Dover they were indebted for the use of that splendid Hall, was very sorry to be unable to present owing to another engagement, but he had asked him to wish them a pleasant and happy evening, and that success might attend their object. (Applause.) The Mayor had also provided refreshments, which would be served during the interval. (Applause.) In conclusion, the President expressed his own regret that he should be unable to be present during the whole of the proceedings, and that after the interval Mr. Mudie would occupy the chair. The speech was received with prolonged applause when translated into Esperanto by Mr. Mudie. For the rest of the evening Esperanto was the sole means of communication employed, and it speaks well for the practicability of the new aŭiliary language that English, French, and Belgians, and others, knowing only their own tongue, and Esperanto, were able to converse together with perfect ease. The next item of the programme consisted of a series of recitations by three young French girls, Mesdemoiselles Bergier of Boulogne, who gave recitations in Esperanto of fables de la Fontaine, whilst another young French girl, Mdlle. Michaŭ, of Boulogne, also gave a recitation. Next M. Derveaŭ sang a song Esperanto, Tagon Suza," after which a poem, "La Vojo," by Dr. Zamenhoff, the inventor of Esperanto, was recited by a M. Bastien, of Valenciennes. Refreshments were next served, and then the rest of the programme was gone through. An amusing item was a Coon song in Esperanto ''Lulu," after which M. A. Michaŭ, President of the Boulogne Group, gave what was understood to be a humorous recitation in Esperanto. After this the little Mesdemoiselles Bergier gave a united recitation about the ''Wolf and the Lamb," after which Madame Bergier sang, and then Mdlle Michaŭ gave a short recitation. M. Derveaŭ next sang a solo, and then the Congress was brought to a close with one or two speeches, which M. Finez, Mr. Geddes, Mr. Mudie, Dr. Guyot, of Calais, a Belgian gentleman, and a Czech from Prague expressed themselves in Esperanto. The last mentioned—a Mr. Kuhn—gave a very interesting account of his experiences in various parts of the world. For though speaking only Czech and Esperanto, he is a very great traveller in all Continental countries, well as in America. He finds travelling, when provided with Esperanto vocabulary, easy matter. He stated that the Dover meeting was the most enjoyable he had witnessed. The proceedings broke up with the singing once more of "God save the King,' in Esperanto, followed by the Marseillaise.' Afterwards special tramcars carried the members of the Congress to the Admiralty Pier, where the French visitors embarked once more for the Continent on Le Nord, leaving England amidst further cheering find singing of the National Airs. Just previous to the departure of the boat, the Dover Hon. Secretary (Mr. Geddes) received atelegram sending hearty salutations to the English and Foreign Esperantists from the Esperanists attending the Science Congress at Grenoble, France. (Dover Express - Friday 12 August 1904) DOVER ESPERANTO CLUB (To the Editor of "The Dover Express.") Sir, May I venture to ask you to grant me a line in your paper to reply to the letter from Mr. Edwards and to explain the objects of Esperanto? Many people still seem rather uncertain as to whether Esperanto is a new breakfast food or a sort of hygienic craze. Needless to say, it neither, but merely an aŭiliary language for International use—comparatively new, it can yet claim a respectable age, and a large number of adherents, being extensively employed in Russia, France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, etc.. as a means of inter communication. its aid a Russian, knowing no English, could correspond or converse with an Englishman, the latter being acquainted with Esperanto, but knowing no Russian. In my own case, I have had the pleasure of interchanging ideas with a Hungarian gentleman, who is not at all acquainted with the English language, while it is perhaps unnecessary for me to say that my knowledge of Czech or Magyar is practically nil. I can claim from my own experience of Esperanto that a few hours study is sufficient to be able read, with some degree of comprehension, letters written in that language. As matter of fact, I wrote my first letter in Esperanto after about two hours' perusal of the text book, and made about half a dozen minor errors, but my correspondent had no difficulty in understanding what I desired to tell him. Can the same be said with regard to English, French, German, Russian, or any other modern language? The objection has been put forward that Esperanto has to be learnt—necessarily. Before anything is known it must be studied. I believe itis a fact that all languages, even the mother tongue, must be learnt. English children are taught speak English in their homes, and to write and read it in the schools. My contention is that it is easier to learn Esperanto than any other language, ancient or modern, and that Esperanto is thus admirably fitted to be used as the language of commerce, science, medicine, and other professions of international and world-wide importance. There is no wish on the part of advocates of Esperanto to supplant the National languages. We desire to teach an aŭiliary language, to be learnt by all people having correspondence with foreigners, thus making international business matters less complicated and costly than they are now. As regards the suggestion put forward by your correspondent that every person should be taught to draw correctly, and carry on conversations with foreigners by means of drawings, supplemented by imitative or other sounds, I fear that is an ideal hardly capable of realisation. Unfortunately only small percentage of the human race is gifted with the artistic sense, and the drawings would require, in most cases, a deal of explanation. it becan e necessary, when drawing (say) a horse, to say "This is a horse," and supplement the drawing with imitation of neighing, I fear the conversation would lag somewhat. Please excuse this frivolity, but that is how the idea presents itself to my inartistic nature. May I add that the Dover Esperanto Club meets every Thursday evening at 8 o'clock, at the School of Art, thanks the kindness of the Mayor in placing a room at our disposal. Non-members are always welcome, and I should be pleased at any time to give information, and to supply text books, etc. I remain, dear sir, yours obediently, H. S. GEDDES. Hon. Sec., Dover Esperanto Club. Northumberland House, Dover, 24th August, 1904. (Dover Express - Friday 26 August 1904) THE ESPERANTO CONGRESS PROCEEDINGS AT BOULOGNE. VISIT TO DOVER YESTERDAY. At Boulogne this week, for the first time in the history of the world since the confusion of tongues at Babel, a Congress of representatives of all parts of the world—or, at any rate, of 35 distinct nationalities—has met and been able to speak to one another in a language common to all. Esperanto, the language which made this possible, is the invention of Polish gentleman, Dr. Zamenhof, of Warsaw. At an early age he recognised that if it were possible to introduce a universal language to use as a means of communication between different nations he would be conferring a benefit mankind. It is not a new idea. In the Middle Ages Latin was to a certain extent a universal written language, but as a spoken tongue it never was universal, because of the differing pronunciations and because of its intricate grammar. Volapuk was another attempt at a universal language, and Bolak was another. Each, however, proved useless for reasons of want of simplicity and from artificial ideas in forming the words. Esperanto is claimed to be and is so absolutely simple that its grammar may be learnt in a day; its words are not artificial, but derived from the roots of European tongues, and a large proportion are very similar to English. Its pronouncation based the Phonetic principle of one letter -one sound. Each sound is to be found in every spoken language in the world, and therefore there is no danger of Esperanto being pronounced dif ferently by different peoples. Esperanto being so simple, has made wonderful progress in the short time, comparatively, that it has been before the public. In every country Societies, National with local branches, have been formed to teach and practice the new language, the Dover Esperanto Club being a local example. There are similar organisations at Deal and Folkestone, the latter being an outcome of the propagandist work of Mr. H. R. Geddes, of Messrs. Friend and Co. 's Continental Agency, who was the original Secretary of the Dover Esperanto Club. Representatives from such organisations all over the world gathered together to tho number of between three thousand and four thousand s>t Boulogne for this first Universal Esperanto Congress. Dr. Zamenhoff, the inventor of the language, met with hero-worship sufficient to turn the head of anyone, but he seemed to keep cool and by turning the energies of his devotees into propagandist work to profit, the cause of Esperanto thereby. The Congress opened on cay at tho Municipal Theatre of Boulogne, a handsomely decorated building about the size of one of the large London Theatres. The Mayor of Boulogne, M. Peron. presided, and welcomes were addressed to the Esperantists by him and lv M. Michaŭ, a well known French barrister, who is President of the Boulogne Esperanto Club, and both an enthusiast and an accomplished speaker the new language. Dr. Zanienhof met with an enthusiastic reception, in the which enthusiastic Esperantists cheered, viva-ed, waved handkerchiefs, until fatigue alone brought quiet and allowed the doctor to speak. He dealt mainly with Esperanto as a means of cementing the brotherhood of mankind, and by furthering mutual understanding lead to idealistic state of International peace. A superb concert followed, all performances being in Esperanto. The Congress has attracted great deal of attention from both the English and French Press, but the stories about everyone in Boulogne wearing the green Esperanto star and Esperanto being heard everywhere, were quite far of the mark. Boulogne is still French, and the general prevalence of "English spoken here" not yet superseded by the green symbol, and the words "Oni Parolas Esperanton." but there were, all the same, plenty of such signs to seen. The visitors, though so large iri numbers, are out-distanced by the ordinary visitors to Boulogne, which is very full just now, with the result that the hotels and lodging houses were all crowded. Excellent arrangements had been made at Boulogne for the accommodation of the visitors, who had also been well prov'ded for with railway facilities by the enterprising and well managed Northern of France Railway. Amongst the Dover visitors were Mr. W. Chitty (Hon. Secretary Dover Esperanto Club), Mr. and Mrs. C.E. Beaufoy, Mr. and Mrs.W. L. Law, and M. J. M. Finez, vice-Consul of France at Dover, and Agent for the Nord Railway, who was one of the organising Committee the Boulogne Congress, and responsible with the Agence Voyages Modernes—the chief French Tourist Agency—for the arrangements for the visit. of the Esperantists to England. This latter would have been a much larger affair but for the lack of cheap facilities offered the S.E.R. Co., as a result of which, instead of 800visitors staying at Dover, a large number will return the same night. At Boulogne, the Congressists spent Sunday in various ways. Some churches had Esperanto sermons; at others the ordinary services were attended; buit the majority spent their time visiting tho surroundings of Boulogne. In the evening a concert was given at the Municipal Theatre, in which all performers used Esperanto, and there was also acted Moliere's " Marriage forcee," translated into Esperanto, and acted by amateurs of about a dozen different nationalities. On Monday, a good deal of Congress work, dealing with with the details of Esperanto, was got through before noon, when a grand banquet tcok place at the Casino, where over 400 delegates, representing 35 nationalities, were present-. M. Michaŭ. the President of the Boulogne Esperanto Club, was in the chair. The health of Dr. Zamenhof was submitted in enthusiastic terms by him, and he referred to the rapid development of Esperanto throughout the world, and predicted that it would fulfil the aim of its inventor by becoming a universal aŭiliary language for the purposes of commercial correspondence, etc. Dr. Zamenhof, in the course of his reply, urged the importance of Esperanto as factor in the world's peace by breaking down the language barrier, and enabling the nations better to understand each other. Then followed a remarkable scene, as for nearly two hours representatives of one nationality after another, twenty in all, from both hemispheres, rose and paid glowing tributes to Dr. Zamenhof as inventor of the common language in which they all spoke. The almost frantic applause with which tlioir speeches were received, proved how efficient an instrument is Esperanto. The English speaker probably created the most interest by calling upon his co-patriots to join in giving Dr. Zamenhof musical honours with "For he's jolly good fellow!" sung in English by way of a change. In the evening a grand costume ball took place at the Casino, when distinctive national costumes wore worn to a very large extent by the delegates. The Casino was crowded with visitors, who undoubtedly had both curiosity and interest aroused in the new language by the novelty of the event. ESPERANTISTS' VISIT TO DOVER. Yesterday, a largo party of Esperantists came on an excursion to England, and after crossing from Boulogne to Folkestone, where they received a hearty welcome, they were entertained by the Mayor and Corporation of Folkestone in the Council Chamber. Subsequently, about. 250 came on to Dover, arriving the Dover Town Station 6.18. The party included Dr. Zamenhof, the inventor of language, who is staying with M. Finez 25. Poncester Road. The party is very much smaller than was anticipated owing to the fact that it was impossible to arrange a cheap trip across the Channel. The Voyages Modernes Agency, accordingly, was unable undertake to provide for the party, who had to arrange matters for themselves, with the assistance cf the officers of the Dover Esperanto Club. Last evening at 9 p.m. the Esperantists were the guests of the Mayor (Sir William Crundall), President the Dover Esperanto Club, at a reception in the Council Chamber. The Mayor, however, was absent in London at the Anglo- French Guildhall Banquet, and Mr. A. T. Walmisley ex-President of the Club, took the chair, and welcomed the guests. On his right sat Dr. Zanienhof, the founder of the new language, and on his left sat Mme. Zamenhof, whilst others supporting him were Mr. Michaŭ (President of the Boulogne Esperanto Club), Dr. Guyot. (President of the Calais Group), Messrs. Finez and Geddes (of the Dover Esperanto Club) were there act as interpreters to those who did not grasp the meaning of the lingvo internacia. Others present were Messrs. H. Hayward, J. R. Mundy, H. Leney, H. F. Edwin, J. Falconer, W. Chitty, C. E. Beaufoy, and a number of Dover ladies, whilst the Esperanto guests included French. Germans, Poles, Hungarians, Italians, etc. There were about 200 present altogether. Mr. Walmislev. having apologised and explained the absence of the Mayor, who deputed him to welcome them and offer the delegates the hospitality had provided for them. reminded the visitors of the important part Dover had taken in the history of this country, and of its progress in late years. At Dover the f : rst Esperanto Congress was held on a smaller scale last year, and it was from Wimereŭ near Boulogne that the first wireless telegraphic message was sent across the Channel to Dover. He considered that the International aŭiliary language would do a great deal to unite nations, and that Dr. Zamenhof had done a great work. He proposed his health, and also that of Mr. Michaŭ, President the Boulogne Congress. (Cheers.) Dr. Zamenhof, responding to the toast, said that though he regretted his inability to speak English, it would not be necessary to regret it, because of the progress the English were making in Esperanto. (Cheers.) M. Michaŭ said that it. gave him very great pleasure once more in England, because ofthe recollections it brought them of their pleasant visit last summer to the Dover Congress, which, though small one. gave rise to the idea of the great universal congress just held at Boulogne. Dover was the first town in England to show its Esperanto scholarship, and to express on the entrance to its Town Hall a welcome in Esperanto all who spoke that language. He expressed his high appreciation of the the work of the chief members of the Dover Esperanto Club for the new language, and especially referred to Messrs. Geddes and Finez. (Cheers.) . M. Gromoski, of Warsaw, b?? on behalf of all the other nations, return ??? to their English hosts—(cheers) —and the ??? endorsed it singing "Dio Regon Savu" (God save the King.) Dr. Guyot (President of the Calais Esperanto Group) also spoke, and cordially invited all to come to the Calaisien reception the following day. The health of the Chairman was next proposed by Madame Zamenhof, and duly honoured, after which the proceedings closed. About 50 returned by the night Calais boat, the remainder staying in Dover. About 50 go on to London, but the others will leave Dover this afternoon for Ostend. (Dover Express - Friday 11 August 1905) Bill Chapman patbillchapman@gmail.com
  6. The names and addresses of three early speakers of Esperanto in Buckinghamshire, with their registration numbers are found in the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) between January 1902 to January 1903 (Series XXIII) to January 1908 to January 1909 (Series XXIX). Here are the names of those Buckinghamshire pioneers of over a century ago: 1904: Arthur C. Boorman, "Dovercourt", Priory Avenue, High Wycombe, Bucks, Anglujo 1906: C. S. Senior, The Rectory, Lillingstone, Lovell, Buckingham, Anglujo 1908: R. Bull, Castle House Buckingham, Bucks, Anglujo The following advertisement appeared in Buckingham Express on Saturday 12 September 1908: BUCKINGHAM ESPERANTO WEEK! KEEP SEPTEMBER 28TH TO OCTOBER 2ND FREE FOR ESPERANTO ! KEEP "THE ENTENTE CORDIALE" WITH ALL NATIONS!! PROFESSOR CHRISTEN , F.B.E A Will deliver an Introductory Lecture on the International Language, on MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 28TH, AT 8 P.M.. IN THE TOWN HALL, BUCKINGHAM CHAIRMAN - REV. C.J. SENIOR, M.A., M.B.E.A. Rector of Lillingstone Lovell Reserved seats,1s. Second seats, 6d. Admissioon, 3d. Tickets at Marsh and Co., Market-square, and Mr Hartland, West Street. On Saturday 3 October 1908 Buckingham Advertiser and Free Press reported ESPERANTO. THE NEW INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE On Monday evening last, Professor Christen gave a lecture and demonstration on the International language, Esperanto, in the Small Hall. Buckingham. The H Rev. C.J. Senior. Idllingstone l/ovell. presided over fairly good audience, who were deeply interested in the remarks of the lecturer. Professor Christen said that he had no doubt that on this very day many thousands of people all over the world had been in sore predicament by being unable to express themselves to those whom they met. They might safely say that they would not take a newspaper but they would find some evidence ot the very astonishing advance in the spirit of internationalism. Alxsolutely everything—science, philanthropy, religion, commerce, industry, every department of life—was driving them towards inter- nationalism ... At the close of the lecture, a vote of thanks was accorderd to the Chairman, on the proposition of Dr Bruce Pearson and seconded by Mr Guy Lucas. During the week demonstrations were given in the Oddfellows' Hall on the new language. Despite the week's activities, I cannot find any trace of an Esperanto society meeting in Buckingham.
  7. Here are the names of two Burnley pioneers found in the Adresaro in 1906: Pastro (=Rev.) J. Morgan-Whiteman, 312, Padiham Road, Burnley, Anglujo J. Simpson, 28, Keith Street, Burnley, Anglujo According to the Enciklopedio Harold Pilling (1888 – 1957) learned Esperanto in the town in 1908. J. Morgan Whiteman was made a Fellow of the British Esperanto Association in June 1907, and Walter B.Currie received the same honour in November 1908. Walter Currie (born in 1872), Scottish by origin, was a businessman who chaired the Burnley Esperanto Society from 1908. He wrote a weekly Esperanto article for the Burnley Gazette. He taught the language in several technical schools, and translated a number of works into Esperanto. An article in the Burnley Gazette on Wednesday 2 February 1910 reported on local activities in and about the language. BURNLEY ESPERANTO SOCIETY. If anyone had doubts as to the vitality of the International language in Burnley and the vicinity, those doubts would surely have been dispelled if the doubter had taken apeep into the Heasandford Council achool on Saturday evening. The occasion was thefourth annual concert and dance promoted bythe Burnley Group of Esperantists. In spite of the extreme inclemency of the evening, nearly 200 persons gathered, including "samideanoj" (like minded persons from Nelson., Rishton,. Great Harwood, Clowbridge, Rawtenstall and other places in the district. The central hall of the school presented avery bright and animated appearance, and dancing to the strains of Mr Howarth's band, occupied a good share of the evening, being evidently vastly enjoyed. Not all the people present were Esperantists, but it: is; quite safe to say that those who were not, wished they were, and heartily envied the older members the branch the facility with which they used the new international tongue. It was delightful to hear the courteous demand "Ĉu vi dancos, frauiino?" and: the cordial reply "Dankon, sinjoro. " ; and away the couple glided over the well-polished floor, as happily and with as complete and mutual understanding as if the engagement had been made in the most conventional English. It made one think what a unique and charming experience it must beto attend one of the International Congresses of the Esperantists, meeting on the common ground of common language, people of a score or more nationalities, each speaking mother-tongue to all the rest, but means of the "Kara lingvo" (the dear language) perfectly comprehending each other and thus realising the truth of Burns' prophecy that men and women the world o'er shall "brithers be a' that." One of the features of the evening was a room set apart for the display of Esperanto literature and postcards - mostly picture postcards received from the foreign correspondents of members of the Burnley group. They were from all nationalities under the sun from China to Peru and formed a very attractive side-show. As to the literature stall, we wish some of those who are sceptic as to the usefulness and universality of the Esperanto movement could have inspected it. It would surely have shaken the complacent and somewhat supercilious notions so many cultured and really well-intentioned people entertain with regard to the position and prospects of Esperanto. The dancing was pleasantly varied recitation (in English) by Miss Crewe, a song. " Coming thro' the rye,' very tastefully sung in Esperanto Miss Poppleton, ventriloquial sketch Mr. Whittam, which the gentleman automaton occasionally lapsed into Esperanto; and some natural international language of music, discoursed piano and violin by Miss and Master Woods, two tiny but sturdy atoms of humanity, whose efforts were truly predigous for their tender years. The president of the Burnley Group, Mr. W. B. Currie, who is Fellow of the British Esperanto Association, offered a few words welcome, the firstl part being English and the concluding passages in Esperanto. He referred to the growth of the movement throughout the world, of its aim,—to promote international amity and goodwill by enabling different peoples to understand each other better. He refeired with strong condemnation to the recent utterances of Bishop Welldon, at Nelson, on the subject of Esperanto; and with regret the recent decision of the Burnley Education Committee to discontinue Esperanto as a subject in the curriculum of the Burnley Technical School. He urged these present who had not already become Esperanto students to join one of the several classes which are now being held various parts oftown, and invited any interested persons to visit the rooms of the Burnley group in Hargreaves-street, which are open every evening. The proceedings were well organised by the committee under tbe guidanceance of the able secretary, Mr. Louis Hartley, and with courteous assistance of the M.C.'s, Messrs. W. B. Currie and J. Harrison.
  8. The names and addresses of 18 early speakers of Esperanto in Bradford, with their registration numbers are found scattered throughout the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) between January 1904 (Edition XXV) and January 1909 (Edition XXIX). All of the following are listed in Bradford, Anglujo, i.e. England. There may be a duplicate entry. 1904: René Pacros, 21, Grove Terrace, Bradford, Yorkshire, Anglujo 1904: Alfred Todd, bookkeeper, 118, Huddersfield road, WYKE nr. BRADFORD, Anglujo 1905: F-ino (=Miss) E. M. Parnaby, 4, Grove Terrace, Bradford. Yorks, Anglujo 1905: Robert Whitaker, 14, White's Terrace, Bradford, Yorkshire. Anglujo 1905: Daniel Priestley, Hawthorn Terrace, Wyke, Bradford. Anglujo 1905: A. Todd, Church View, Wyke, Bradford, Anglujo 1906: Herbert England, 61, Highate, Heaton, Bradford, Yorks, Anglujo 1906: George H. Overton, 3, Elizabeth Street Bradford, Anglujo 1906: Norman Calvert, 45, Heidelberg Road, Manningham, Bradford (Yorks), Anglujo 1906: E. Quarkosky (possibly Quarkowsky), 41, Woodview, Bradford, Anglujo 1906: Chas: H. Lowe, 209 Legrams Lane, Bradford (Yorks), Anglujo 1906: Joseph Byfleet, 3, Moorside Rd, Lowmoore, Bradford, Anglujo 1906: W. F. Crabtree, 325 Girlington Rd, Bradford (Yorkshire), Anglujo 1908: F-ino (=Miss) D. Ingram, 102, Edderthorpe St, Leeds Road, Bradford, Yorks, Anglujo 1908: W. T. Crossley, 197, Undercliffe St, Bradford (Yorks), Anglujo 1908: W. Stowell, 6, Westbury St., Parsonage Road, Laister-dyke, Bradford, Yorks, Anglujo Bill Chapman 1908: C. West, 17, Hastings Place. Manchester Road, Bradford, Anglujo 1908: Ed. Rennison, 200. Folkestone Sl. Bradford, Yorks, Anglujo René Pacros was born in 1882 in Thiers, France, and 1901 he was boarding at the address given in the list. He is described as a wool dyer’s clerk. Daniel Priestley was born in 1867 in Bradford. In 1901 he was a railway clerk. Ten years later he was working for the goods department of a railway. George H. Overton (1881-1944) was an oil merchant’s book keeper, working for his father an oil merchant. Clearly those interested in the language, although spread over Bradford and surrounding area, came together from time to time. According to an inside cover of The British Esperantist magazine for 1908 an Esperanto Society in Bradford had been founded in May 1906. Its secretary is named as J.T. Holmes, 29 Norman Drive, Eccleshill, and its President in 1908 was Robert Whitaker. In 1913 the secretary was J.A. Calvert of 115, Legram’s Lane. It was J.T. Holmes who wrote to Dr Zamenhof in 1909 offering him the title of Honorary Prsident of the Esperanto Society in Bradford. Zamenhof accepted, but within a couple of years he would no longer accept such titles. Holmes wrote to Zamenhof to ask about the day when Esperanto was first published. Zamenhof’s reply was that the appearance of the Unua Libro was “ĉirkaŭ” (around) 21 July.
  9. By 1901 the population of Blackpool, once as coastal hamlet, was 47,000, by which time it was seen as the archetypal British seaside resort. The names and addresses of eighteen early speakers of Esperanto in Blackpool with their registration numbers are found scattered throughout the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) between January 1900 to January 1901 (Edition XXIV) and January 1907 to January 1908 (Edition XXVII)).. Here are the names of those Blackpool pioneers of over a century ago: 1903: F-ino (=Miss) L. M. M. Redmayne, Stella Maris, Withnell road, South-Shore, Blackpool, Anglujo 1904: Miss E. G. Vinter, The Gabbes, Station road, Blackpool, Anglujo 1904: Miss Law-Brown, Belsfield, 6, Albert Terrace, promenade, S. S. Blackpool, Anglujo 1906: John H. Heaton, 180, Warbreck Road, Blackpool, Anglujo 1906: David E. Williamson, 5 Glen Street, Blackpool, Anglujo 1906:A. Vivian Jackson, 8, Leamington. Rd., Blackpool, Anglujo 1907: Joseph Hadall, Bank House, 10, Sheppard Street, Blackpool, Anglujo 1907: F-ino (=Miss) Nellie Lodge, 52, Devenshire Road, Blackpool, Anglujo 1907: F-ino (=Miss) B. A. Hoyle, 82, Caunce St, Blackpool, Anglujo 1907: F-ino (=Miss) Catherine Hedley, 6, Upper Queen Street, North Shore, Blackpool, Anglujo 1908: C. Smethurst, 72 Peter St, Blackpool, Anglujo It is possible to identify some of those listed. Lenora Marguerita Mary Redmayne (1878-1964) was born in Fylde and became the wife of a doctor. Ethel Gertrude Vinter (1877-1974) was the daughter of a robe maker and was of independent means at the time of the 1939 register. Bertha Alice Hoyle (1879-1948) was a swcholl teacher in 1901 and was a head teacher” in 1911. Catherine Hedley was a pupil teacher in 1901 and a “certificated school teacher” ten years later. An advertisement in The British Esperantist for April 1907 names an individual called G.R. Mills who has a group of young Esperanto speakers, aged 16 to thirty looking for penfriends overseas. A 7-page guidebook in Esperanto to the town was published in 1907. The Oficiala Gvidlibreto pri "Blackpool" en Lancashire, Anglujo bore the subheading "Mirolando apud la marondoj" (A wonderland by the waves of the sea). Bill Chapman
  10. Birmingham with its thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided a diverse and resilient economic base for industrial prosperity. Its resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of broad-based political radicalism, which under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a key role in the development of British democracy. It is perhaps unsurprising that the new planned language Esperanto attacted adepts here. 1903: Frederic William Hipsley, Fernleigh, Highbridge road, Wylde Green, Nr Birmingham Anglujo 1903: Francis Henry Potts, 4 Handsworth Wood Road, Birmingham Anglujo 1903: Adolf Schlichter, 300 Belgrave Road, Birmingham, Anglujo 1903: Thomas E. Woodward, 123 Hockley str., Birmingham Anglujo 1904: W. Arthur Williams, 6 Anderson Road, Erdington, Birmingham Anglujo 1904: Eric E. Westbury, 60 Bournbank road, Selly Oak, Birmingham Anglujo 1904: H. E. White, Teneriffe, Forest road, Moseley, Birmingham, Anglujo 1905: F-ino (=Miss) E. Mary Edwards. 3 Lloyd St., Small Heath, Birmingham Anglujo 1905: A. Palmer-Jones, 249 Aston Lane, Perry Barr, Birmingham, Anglujo 1905: W. H. Thos. Partridge, "Elsimre" Grove Lane, Handsworth BIRMINGHAM Anglujo 1906: Joseph H. Dixon, The Hermitage, Four Oaks , Birmingham Anglujo 1906: F-ino (=Miss) Mary G. Clarke, 17 Strensham Road Birmingham Anglujo 1906: G. Arncliffe Percival, 127 Westminster Road, Birchfield, Birmingham Anglujo 1906: W. C. Amery, 9 Temple Street, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: William E. Turner, 261 Ickneild St, Hockley, Birmingham Anglujo 1906: F-ino (=Miss) Emily Cattell, 11 Wood St, Ladywood, Birmingham Anglujo 1906: J. J. Shield, 20 High Street, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: W. T. Fennell, 42 Stockfield Rd, Tysley, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: David Aughtie, 41 Ettington Rd, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: P. Stanley Beaufort, The Studio, Easy Row, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: Vivian Erwood Robson, 111 Park Road, Aston, Nr. Birmingham Anglujo 1906: Daniel J. O'Sullivan, Ivy Bank, 19 Brougham Street, Handsworth, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: E. H. Moreton, 20 Murdock Road, Handsworth, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: S. W. Keyte, "Fairfield" Eastern Road, Selly Park, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: James G. Beauchamp, 270 Tiverton Rd, Selly Oak, Birmingham, Anglujo 1906: H. Grant, 5 Elvetham Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: J. W. Ord, 131 Hubert Road Bournbrook (apud Birmingham), Anglujo 1907: N. M. Bloore, 150 Pershore Street, Kings Norton, Birmingham, Anglujo 1907: D. W. M. Hall, 270 Tiverton Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham, Anglujo 1907: Wilfrid Owen, Oscott College, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: J. O. Wall, Oscott College, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: W. H. Garbutt, 3 Weatheroak Road, Sparkhill, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: H. A. Brown, Mountfield, Chantry Rd, Moseley, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: Harry T. Hall, 208 Pershore Rd, Stirchley, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: E. B. Walker, Christchurch Vicarage, Summerfield. Birmingham Anglujo 1907: Howard Durnell, 52 Newton Road, Sparkhill, Birmingham Anglujo. 1907: T. K. Yang, 32, Salisbury Bd., Hadworth, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: T. J. Perry, 21 Mansen Road, Sparkhill, Birmingham Anglujo 1907: Fino (=Miss) H. L. Robins, 48 Esmé Road, Sparkhill, Birmingham, Anglujo 1907: A. Watton, 227 Nineveh Road, Birmingham Anglujo 1908: A. N. Lloyd, St Ambrose Vicarage, Birmingham. Anglujo 1908: D. Derrington, Tufa Mount, Sth. Yardley, Birmingham, Anglujo.. Not much is known to me about many of those listed, although some are to be found in post office directories. A striking exception is Frederic William Hipsley. He was an Esperantist and civil engineer born in 1876 in London. In the 1911 census he is describes as a “land surveyor sewage disposal”. He was a lifelong member of the international body Universala Esperanto-Asocio (founded in 1908), a secretary of Birmingham Esperanto Society, secretary and later president of the Midlands Esperanto Federation. According to Ancestry.com he died in 1959. As a Quaker and therefore a Conscientious Objector, he served in the Friends' Ambulance Unit during the First World War. He translated a number of devotional texts from English into Esperanto. Hipsley was the translator of “O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go” (Ho Am', tenanta min konstante) into Esperanto. Francis Henry Potts (born abt 1864), the son of a solicitor, was a commercial clerk at the time of the 1901 census. Adolf Schlichter was born about 1854 in Germany and died in 1913. He was a Manufacturers' Agent in the 1890 and 1892 Kelly´s Directory of Birmingham. He is described as a “Traveller” in the 1913 Kelly´s Directory of Birmingham. Arthur Lloyd was curate-in-charge of St. Mary & St. Ambrose from 1891 to 1915. This church was a daughter parish to St Bartholomew's Church, Edgbaston. The D. Derrington listed was, I believe, Edwin David Derrington (1887-1968). In 1911 he was an assistant at builder’s merchant in his father's business. W. T. Fennell (1873 – 1928) was described as “strip caster German silver” in 1901, while David Aughtie (1877-1968) was a schoolmaster. William Samuel Keyte (1875 – 1947) was a solicitor’s clerk. WE can trace the travels of Norman Margetts Bloore (1879 - 1955) to Canada where he is described as a theological student, as a chef in the Canada Census of 1911. He then moved south to the United States, where he was employed by the Salvation Army as a book keeper and then as a minister. James George Beauchamp (1877 – 1955) was describes as a “gun barrel filer” in 1901. Clearly those interested in the language, although spread over the city, came together from time to time. According to an inside cover of The British Esperantist magazine for 1908 an Esperanto Society in Birmingham had been founded in September 1906. Its secretary in 1908 was W.E. Turner of 6 Monument Road and the President is listed as P. Galloway. The Birmingham Esperantists succeeded in meeting throughout the First World War.
  11. The names and addresses of eight early speakers of Esperanto in Birkenhead are found scattered throughout the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (directory of Esperantists) between 1889 and 1908. The following are listed in Anglujo, i.e. England. Here are the names of those Birkenhead pioneers of over a century ago: 1889: C. K. Fletcher, 138 Oxton Road, Birkenhead. An. 1889: B. G. Geoghegan, 25 Balls R-d, Birkenhead, An. 1889: R. Geoghegan, 14 Prince's Terrace, Claughton, Birkenhead, An. 1905: F-ino (=Miss) Kate Craven, 13, Reedville, Birkenhead, Anglujo 1905: P. W. Hawkes, 93, Park road South, Birkenhead, Anglujo 1906: Ransford Joseph Fer, 134, Peel Street, Tranmere, Birkenhead, Anglujo 1908: F-ino (=Miss) E. E. Hodson, 21, Pearson Rd., Birkenhead, Anglujo 1908: Jom Griffiths , 77 Claughton Rd., Birkenhead Anglujo Not much is known to me about many of those listed, although some are to be found in post office directories. Ransford Joseph Fer was born in about 1880, and was a clerk for an oil merchant in 1911. Listed with him, and presumably recruited by him, is Richard Geoghegan’s mother B.G. (Bessie Gertrude) Geoghegan of Birkenhead. Richard Henry Geoghegan (1866 –1943) was born and brought up in Birkenhead. The Dictionary of Irish Biography suggests that he was also known as ‘Harry’. The English Wikipedia tells us that “In the Unua Adresaro, the earliest directory of supporters of Esperanto, Richard Geoghegan appears as number 264.” It goes on to call him, under a photo, “first Esperantist in the English-speaking world”. The Esperanto Vikipedio makes a more cautious claim, calling him “ŝajne la unua angle parolanta esperantisto” (apparently the first English-speaking Esperantist). The booklet called, in full, Adresaro de la personoj kiuj ellernis la Lingvon « Esperanto », serio 1, 1889, does indeed list the first thousand learners, but it does not ascribe numbers to them, nor is there any indication that these names are listed in order of registration; indeed they are in alphabetical order. Giving his new address in Tacoma, Washington seven years later, Geoghegan gives himself the number 264 - see “Novaj Esperantistoj” Serio XVI, 1896, but numbers were not published for the first thousand. Richard Geoghegan suffered a fall at home as a small child, as a result of which he was crippled for life, walking with difficulty and often with the help of crutches or a cane. From an early age he displayed extraordinarily great abilities, especially in the learning of languages – perhaps as a compensation for his inability to be physically active. Despite his education being disrupted by medical treatment – we know from the 1881 Census that on census night he was at the Sanatorium for Children in North Meols, Lancashire – around the age of 17, he became interested in oriental writing systems and entered the University of Oxford, in January 1884, to study Chinese. There he showed himself to be an outstanding student, twice receiving scholarship awards, but he did not obtain a degree because at Oxford, there was no degree in Chinese until 1936. In the autumn of 1887, when the language Esperanto had just appeared, according to Richardson (Shamrocks on the Tanana, 2009) it was not Geoghegan himself but his friend Walter J. Crawhill, who read about the new international language and immediately wrote to Dr L.L. Zamenhof in Latin. Geoghegan was able to use the German edition of the Unua Libro (First Book) which Zamenhof sent. Having learned the language from this booklet, a while later Geoghegan received from Zamenhof the first copies of the same booklet in an English translation by a Warsaw enthusiast. Geoghegan warned Zamenhof that this translation was a poor one, probably not by a native speaker, and it would bring Esperanto into disrepute in the English-speaking world. As a result, Zamenhof asked Geoghegan to produce a more suitable translation himself, which he did. The original faulty translation was withdrawn, and in 1889 Geoghegan's version was published, tasking the place of the earlier version. This modest booklet had an impact in the English-speaking world, making Zamenhof’s new language accessible by people who had no previous background in language learning. Although Richard Geoghegan presented himself as an Irishman, and his father was an Irish Protestant, his mother was certainly English, and he was born in Birkenhead, lived briefly in Kent and went to secondary school in Pudsey, near Leeds, then to Oxford University. In this respect Geoghegan’s life paralleled that of Saunders Lewis (1893 - 1985), born John Saunders Lewis in nearby Wallasey. After an English education, Lewis went on to be a Welsh poet, dramatist, historian, literary critic, and a prominent Welsh nationalist and a founder of the Welsh National Party (later known as Plaid Cymru). The Geoghegans (Gertrude with sons Richard and John, known as Jack, and two daughters), emigrated from Liverpool to Washington State, USA in April 1891, settling in Eastsound. Here, while working as a secretary / stenographer, Geoghegan became a founder of and a leading light in the Washington State Philological Society. It was in North America in the 1890s that Geoghegan spoke Esperanto for the first time. Until then the language had been a written one only for him. The first person he spoke to in the language was a German called Wilhelm Trompeter. Geoghegan moved to Alaska to act as Stenographer to an ambitious lawyer and politician, and it was here that he died on October 27, 1943. He had married a woman of black or of mixed-race descent in secret in 1916. This son of Birkenhead remains virtually unknown today, but he was a man who overcame a handicap to make a useful contribution to linguistics, and to Esperanto in particular. Bill Chapman
  12. The names and addresses of fourteen early speakers of Esperanto in Berkshire, with their registration numbers are found scattered throughout the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) between 1903 and 1908. All of the following are listed in Anglujo, i.e. England. Here are the names of those Berkshire pioneers of over a century ago: 1903: J. Harold Consterdine, 77, Baker Street, Reading, Berkshire, Anglujo 1903: A. Everest Jr., esq., Wokingham 1905: S-ino (=Mrs) E. Kendall, Warren Tor, Woodcote road, Caversham, Reading, Anglujo 1905: Harry R. Metcalf, Canwick, Newbury, Anglujo 1906: Thomas B. Harris, c/o Kenyon Fuller Esq, Sonning, Nr, Reading. Anglujo 1906: F. J. Freeman, 8, Castle Street, Reading, Anglujo 1906: S. Jackson Coleman, 107, Broad Street, Reading, Anglujo. 1906: Norman Goertz, 3, High Street, Windsor, Anglujo 1906: R. G. Radnor, 11, Peascod St, Windsor (Berke), Anglujo 1906: M. Beachcroft, Wingates, Boyue Hill, Maidenhead, Anglujo 1906: J. C. Caulfeid, Bradfield College, Bradfield, Berks, Anglujo 1906: F-ino (=Miss) Lonise A. Wright, "Dagwell", Sunningdale, Berks, Anglujo 1906: S. T. E. Chinneck, Bradfield College, Reading, Anglujo 1908: D. Astley, Bridge Villa, Hungerford, Berks, Anglujo James Harold Consterdine was at Emmanuel College, gained his BA in Cambridge in 1907, so he was a very young man when he discovered Esperanto. Harry Railton Metcalf (1877-1959) was a pharmaceutical chemist’s assistant in 1901, then a pharmaceutical chemist ten years later. Norman Goertz was born in Windsor in 1884. In 1901 he was a draper’s apprentice in St Pancras, London. Reginald George Radnor (1882-1962) was a tailor’s apprentice in 1901, and in 1911 he was a tailor and employer. Sidney Thomas Elston Chinneck (1877-1952) was a public school master in 1911. After studying at Cambridge he was an assistant schoolmaster at Bradley College until 1926. He was ordained a deacon in 1927 and became an Anglican priest in the following year. From 1926 to 1935 he was headmaster of Ovingdean Hall preparatory school. Lawyer Stanley Jackson Coleman was author of ‘A Week at Esperanto’, a 16 page brochure published by the British Esperanto Association in 1920. In 1926 he married his Hungarian sweetheart Muzza Schönau at St George’s Church, Bloomsbury. The whole marriage ceremony took place in Esperanto, the language which had brought them together. It was the first such service. Jackson Coleman was born in Reading, 1887 and died in Douglas, Isle of Man in 1962. He and his wife Muzza, who used Esperanto as their home language and shared a love of folklore, moved to the island in about 1946. Those interested in the language came together from time to time. According to The British Esperantist magazine for 1913 an Esperanto Society in Reading was functioning in that year, meeting every Thursday. Its secretary is named as Miss R. Woolford, That group continued to meet until the 1980s. I cannot trace any documents about that societryt. Nor can I find any groups of Esperanto speakers elsewhere in the county. Bill Chapman
  13. The names and addresses of eight early speakers of Esperanto in Bedfordshire, with their registration numbers are found scattered throughout the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) between January 1903 and January 1907. Here are the names of those pioneers. 1903: Joseph Cmolan Snape, 28 str. Peteis (?St. Peters Street), Bedford, Anglujo 1903: Rose Eva Shape, 28, str. Peteis. (?St. Peters Street), Bedford, Anglujo 1904: L. H. Huthwaite, 186, Castle road, Bedford. Anglujo. 1904: F E. Walls, 57, Spenser road, Bedford, Anglujo 1905: F-ino (=Miss) L. M. Tuke, Lingcroft, Woburn Lands R. S. O., Beds, Anglujo 1906: N. J. Legge, 40, George S., Bedford, Beds, Anglujo 1906: Rev. Arthur Cross, Stourhead Lodge, Woburn, Sands, Beds., Anglujo 1908: F-ino (=Miss) Emily O'Dell, Oakley, Beds, Anglujo The honour of being the first Esperantists in Bedfordshire belongs to Mr and Mrs Snape. Mr Snape wrote widely in Esperanto For example, he had a translation published in the July 1908 edition of Tra La Mondo, a magazine published in Algiers. Emily O’Dell was born in 1879 in Bromham where her father was baker and sub-postmaster. By the time of the 1911 census she was back in Bromham, described as a widow and mother’s help. Kelly’s Directory of Woburn Sands and Aspley Heath 1903 show Miss Tuke as living at Lincroft, Woburn Sands. Clearly those interested in the language, although spread over Bedford and surrounding area, came together from time to time. According to an inside cover of The British Esperantist magazine for 1908 an Esperanto Society in Bedford had been founded in October 1904. Its secretary in 1908 is given as Miss Dudenay, Verulam, Rothsay Gardens, Bedford. The president in that year was C.I. Knight-Watson. The local press reported on their activities dfrom time to time: BEDFORD ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION. The annual general meeting took place on Tuesday, May 5th, at 8.30, in the Central Restaurant. C. J. Knight Watson was elected to the chair. The Treasurer’s report showed a balance of £1 15s. 11d, to bo carried over to next year. The report of the secretary (Mr Ernest Pointer) remarked on Professor Christie’s visit last November, and mentioned that the Association had grown, in consequence, from ten to twenty-six members ; also the fact that the group has completed the translation of the first of K. L. Stevenson’s “New Arabian Nights.” The group, besides being alliliatod to the British Esperanto Association, is now alliliated to the newly formed Universal Esperanto Association, whose objects are to farther all schemes for the development of the practical uses of the language, such as translation bureaus, consuls, continental and foreign tours, etc. The meeting then elected, as officers for the coming season—President, Mr Knight Watson ; Hon. Treasurer, Mr Thos. Walls; Hon. Sec. (pro tern), Ernest Pointer. A committee of five was appointed to consider names for the executive committee. A set of now rules, submitted by the Hon. Sec., were accepted with a few' small amendments. The meeting then closed. have just received a copy of the Esperanto statistics from the Central, shewing that there are now 865 Esperanto groups, extending over some 60 different countries. (Bedfordshire Mercury, Friday 08 May 1908) Early minute books of the Bedford Esperanto Association starting from 1907 are held in Bedfordshire Archives and Records Service. The Bedfordshire Regiment in the Great War spent time in 1916 in trenches named Esperanto Terrace and Esperanto Trench. One wonders whether it was Bedfordshire men who carried the name to the war in France.
  14. The names and addresses of early speakers of Esperanto in Aberdeen, with their registration numbers are as follows in the Adresaro de Esperantistoj (collection of addresses of Esperantists) of January 1904 to January 1905 (Series XXV). With the exception of the first named, all of the following are listed in Aberdeen, Anglujo, i.e. England! (Addresses elsewhere in Scotland are correctly assigned to “Skotlando”). The number given is a unique one for each individual. Indeed, early users of the language frequently signed articles with that number alone, knowing that anyone wanting to contact them could easily find their address in the Adresaro. Here are the names of those Aberdeen pioneers of over a century ago: 9930 Hugh G. Ross (M.A.), 8 Thomson Street 10406 Joseph Bisset, Engineer, 14 Roslin Terrace 10407 A. Christen, Bel Air, King’s Gate 10408 David A. Duff, Clerk, 23 Thistle Street 10409 John Durward, Rookseller (sic), 5 Upperkirksgate 10410 Mrs C. Farquharson Kennedy 10411 Walter Laing, Clerk, 30 Union Street 10412 John Macdonald, 216 Union Street 10413 George A. Miller, 18 Mile End Avenue 10414 Won (?) G. Robertson, 27 Wallfield Crescent 10415 S. Rose Donaldson, Advocate, 259 Union Street 10461 George Michie, Craigton Cottage, Peterculter 10462 James Robertson, Craigton Cottage, Culter 10463 George Skinner, 40 Devonshire Road 10464 W.G. Smith, 72 Whitehall Road 10465 George Wallace, 98 Bonnymuir Place 10466 Alexander A. Watt, 84 Leslie Terrace 10475 René de Blanchaud, 160 Midstocket Road 10476 Alda de Blanchaud, Viewbank, Midstocket Road 10477 W. Edmund Bell, 24 St Swithin Street 10478 Mrs W. Bell, 24 St Swithin Street 10479 William Kemp, (? c/o) A. Booth, 48 Elmbank Terrace 10480 Robert Brown, 31 Rubislaw Den South 10481 W. Copeland, 49 Garden Place 10482 Miss R.F. Craigmile, 5 Strawberry Bank 10483 Miss B. Craigmile, 5 Strawberry Bank 10484 E.L. Duncan, 33 Hamilton Place 10485 Miss A.H. Grant, Rowan Cottage, Powis Terrace 10486 S.C. Howard, 67 Beaconsfield Place 10487 Dr A. Dalziel Keith, 53 Desswood Place 10488 George Laing, Cults 10489 A. H. Macandrew, Vinery Lodge, Cults 10490 John Milne, 109 Union Grove 10491 James Milne, 9 North Silver Street 10492 W. Todd Moffatt, 68 Forest Road 10493 J.M. Morrison, Grammar School 10494 Alexander Rodger, 165 Forest Avenue 10495 Mary I. Sheret, 78 Powis Place 10535 G.A. Simpson, 14 Belvidere Street 10536 John Smith, 211 Union Street 10537 Alfred J. Tongh, 33 Street (sic) 11278 F-ino Forrest, Ludgreharn, Longside, Skoptlando 12472 G.M. Mackenzie, 28 Albyn Place 13417 Andew Craig, (apotekisto kaj drogsto) (=apothecary and druggist), 210 Gallowgate According to the inside cover (p.ii) of The British Esperantist magazine for January 1905, an Esperanto Society in Aberdeen had been founded in October 1904. Its Secretary is given as Mr Donaldson S. Rose of 259 Union Street, Aberdeen, and the President is listed as A. Christen Esq. In the list of affiliated groups in 1907 (see The British Esperantist, vol. III, title page) Aberdeen is not listed, either because it had ceased to meet or because it had chosen not to affiliate to the British Esperanto Association. Only in January 1919 does an affiliated Esperanto group appear again in the The British Esperantist for that month. The secretary in that year was Miss Annie, L. Burgess, c/o Mrs Christopher, 30 Mid-Stocket Road. The meeting venue is given as Training Centre, Charlotte Street. The group met on a Friday fortnightly at 8 pm. In 1921 the secretary is given as Miss M. Campbell, 34a Skene Square. In 1923 the Secretary is given as Miss M.D. Thomson, 6 Orchard Lane. The number of Esperanto speakers registered in Aberdeen is disproportionately large compared to Edinburgh and Glasgow. Can anyone account for this sudden outbreak of internationalism in Aberdeen? One can speculste that the appearance of articles about Volapük in two local newspapers in 1888 and 1889 had prepared the ground. Bill Chapman
  15. La nomoj kaj adresoj de fruaj parolantoj de esperanto en Aberdeen, kun iliaj registraj numeroj aperas kiel ĉi-sekve en la Adresaro de Esperantistoj Kun la escepto de la unua nomita kaj 11278, ĉiu listiĝas en «Aberdeen, Anglujo»! (Adresoj aliloke en Skotlando estas ĝuste asignitaj al "Skotlando"). La numero donita estis unika por ĉiu individuo. Efektive, fruaj uzantoj de la lingvo ofte subskribis artikolojn per nur tiu numero, sciante ke kiu ajn deziranta kontakti ilin povus facile trovi la adreson en la Adresaro. Jen la listo : 9930 Hugh G. Ross (M.A.), 8 Thomson Street 10406 Joseph Bisset, Engineer, 14 Roslin Terrace 10407 A. Christen, Bel Air, King’s Gate 10408 David A. Duff, Clerk, 23 Thistle Street 10409 John Durward, Rookseller (tiel!), 5 Upperkirksgate 10410 Mrs C. Farquharson Kennedy 10411 Walter Laing, Clerk, 30 Union Street 10412 John Macdonald, 216 Union Street 10413 George A. Miller, 18 Mile End Avenue 10414 Won (?) G. Robertson, 27 Wallfield Crescent 10415 S. Rose Donaldson, Advocate, 259 Union Street 10461 George Michie, Craigton Cottage, Peterculter 10462 James Robertson, Craigton Cottage, Culter 10463 George Skinner, 40 Devonshire Road 10464 W.G. Smith, 72 Whitehall Road 10465 George Wallace, 98 Bonnymuir Place 10466 Alexander A. Watt, 84 Leslie Terrace 10475 René de Blanchaud, 160 Midstocket Road 10476 Alda de Blanchaud, Viewbank, Midstocket Road 10477 W. Edmund Bell, 24 St Swithin Street 10478 Mrs W. Bell, 24 St Swithin Street 10479 William Kemp, (? c/o) A. Booth, 48 Elmbank Terrace 10480 Robert Brown, 31 Rubislaw Den South 10481 W. Copeland, 49 Garden Place 10482 Miss R.F. Craigmile, 5 Strawberry Bank 10483 Miss B. Craigmile, 5 Strawberry Bank 10484 E.L. Duncan, 33 Hamilton Place 10485 Miss A.H. Grant, Rowan Cottage, Powis Terrace 10486 S.C. Howard, 67 Beaconsfield Place 10487 Dr A. Dalziel Keith, 53 Desswood Place 10488 George Laing, Cults 10489 A. H. Macandrew, Vinery Lodge, Cults 10490 John Milne, 109 Union Grove 10491 James Milne, 9 North Silver Street 10492 W. Todd Moffatt, 68 Forest Road 10493 J.M. Morrison, Grammar School 10494 Alexander Rodger, 165 Forest Avenue 10495 Mary I. Sheret, 78 Powis Place 10535 G.A. Simpson, 14 Belvidere Street 10536 John Smith, 211 Union Street 10537 Alfred J. Tongh, 33 Street (tiel!) 11278 F-ino Forrest, Ludgreharn, Longside, Skotlando 12472 G.M. Mackenzie, 28 Albyn Place 13417 Andew Craig, apotekisto kaj drogisto, 210 Gallowgate Laŭ la interna kovrilo (p.ii) de la revuo The British Esperantist por januaro 1905, Esperanto Societo en Aberdeen estis fondita en oktobro 1904. Ĝia secretario tiam estas S-ro Donaldson S. Rose de 259 Union Street, Aberdeen, kaj la prezidanto aperas kiel A. Christen. En la listo de filiiĝintaj grupoj en 1907 (vidu The British Esperantist,, vol. III, titola paĝo) Aberdeen ne estas enlistigita, aŭ ĉar ĝia societo ĉesis renkontiĝi aŭ ĉar ĝi elektis ne filiiĝi al Brita Esperantista Asocio. Nur en januaro 1919 filiiĝinta Esperanta grupon aperas denove en The British Esperantist, por tiu monato. La sekretario en tiu jaro estis f-ino Annie L. Burgess, p/a s-ino Christopher, 30 Mid-Stocket Road. La kunvenejo estis Trejna Centro, Charlotte Street. La grupo kunvenis vendrede duonmonate je la 8a vespere. En 1921 kiel sekretario rolis f-ino M. Campbell, 34 Skene Square. En 1923 la Sekretario estis f-ino M.D. Thomson, 6 Orchard Lane. La nombro da esperanto-uzantoj en Aberdeen en tiuj fruaj jaroj estas proporcie tre granda kompare kun Edinburgo kaj Glasgovo. Ĉu iu povas klarigi pri tiu subita ekapero de internaciismo en Aberdeen? Certe aperis artkoloj pri la volapuka en lokaj ĵurnaloj dum 188 kaj 1889. Eble tiu ekapero de la volapka pretigis la terenon. Lastatempe mi trovis en Lingvo Internacia, majo 1905 (p. 212) tekston kiu meritas represon senŝanĝe: En Aberdeen aperis nova gazeto esperantista, aŭ pli ĝuste rondiranta maŝinskribajo, eldonata en formo de eleganta kajereto « neostile » presita; ĝia titolo estas La Norda Stelo. La desegnaĵo de la kovrilo montras esperantan stelon brilantan en mallurna ĉielo super la Aberdeen’a urbo prezentata per la urbestreja turo; la kajero entenas diversajn literaturajn tradukojn de Ia grupanoj kaj lokajn sciigojn. Sinturni al la sekretario de la grupo, S-ro D. S. Rose, 259 Union Street, Aberdeen, Skotlando. Por montri, kiel rapide disvastiĝas nia ideo en tiu regiono, ni jene presas eltirajon el letero de D-ro CHRISTEN, la fondinto de la grupo en Aberdeen : « En junio 1904, mi trovis, tralegante broŝureton de D-ro JAVAL, Entre Aveugles, aludon pri Esperanto, dank’ al kiu la aŭtoro povis korespondadi internacie pli facile ol per aliaj de li konataj lingvoj. Mi tre interesiĝis pri tio ĉi kaj tuj venigis kelkajn librojn pri la nova lingvo. En julio ka] aŭgusto, mi ne havis tempon okupi min pri ĝi, sed nur mi povis ricevi kelkajn informojn pri la nuna disvasteco de la lingvo dum vojaĝo, kiun mi faris Parizon. En tiu momento, mi alestis internacian kongreson en Annecy kaj tie mi devis traduki diversajn paroladojn ! Tio ĉi tute konfirmis min en mia intenco ellerni la helpan lingvon, kaj fine en septembro mi povis malfermi miajn esperantajn librojn. La 10-an de decembro mi publikigis unu unuan leteron en la plej gravaj ĉi-tieaj gazetoj ; mi ricevis kelkajn respondojn. La 13-an, mi presigis duan leteron kaj alvokis al kunveno. En tiun ĉi venis pli ol 600 personoj kaj la duono el ili devis returnen iri pro manko da spaco en la halo. La morgaŭan tagon, la ĉefa loka gazeto petis de mi du artikolojn pri la demando ; mi malfermis du senpagajn kursojn, kie enskribiĝis 125 kaj 83 lernantoj. Multaj personoj eklernis Ia lingvon private, la libro- vendistoj ne povis sufiĉi la postulojn. » Al tiu ĉi letero, skribita en oktobro lasta, ni povas nur aldoni, ke la propagando senĉese alportis novajn kaj pli belajn rezultatojn. S-ro Höveler, kiu vizitis nian redakcion antaŭ kelkaj tagoj, diris al ni, ke nun la Aberdeen’a grupo esperantista kalkulas pli ol 500 membrojn, kaj ekster ĝi estas ankaŭ multaj esperantistoj en la regiono. (fino de la citaĵo) Klare la personeco de D-ro Christen ludis gravan rolon en la komenco, sed nek li nek Aberdeen ricevas mencion en La Enciklopedio, eldonita en 1933-35. Mi demandas min ĉu postvivis tiu bulteno La Norda Stelo. Laǔ mia sperto tiaj eldonaĵoj, tiom valoraj por nia historio, rare restas facile troveblaj. Mi scivolas kio okazis al Esperanto en Aberdeen post 1923. Ĉu la grupo daŭre kunvenis? Ĉu protokoloj restas en ekzisto? Ĉu aperis raportoj en lokaj revuo post 1904? Ĉu iuj el tiuj entuziasmuloj havis eblecon paroli Esperanton kun homoj de aliaj landoj? Bill Chapman
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